A Glossary of Scrum / Agile Terms

A Glossary of Scrum / Agile Terms

Acceptance Criteria: Details that indicate the scope of a user story and help the team and product owner determine done-ness.

Agile: the name coined for the wider set of ideas that Scrum falls within; the Agile values and principles are captured in the Agile Manifesto.

Architect: there is no architect role on a Scrum team, instead all team members are responsible for emerging the architecture.

Burndown  also called as Sprint Burndown, Product Burndown

Chicken (arch.) term for anyone not on the team, the term offended some people so is now rarely used, cf. Pig

Daily Scrum a fifteen-minute daily team meeting to share progress, report impediments and make commitments. During the Daily scrum each team member answers three questions:

  1. “What have I done since the last Scrum meeting? (i.e. yesterday)”
  2. “What will I do before the next Scrum meeting? (i.e. today)”
  3. “What prevents me from performing my work as efficiently as possible?”

The ScrumMaster ensures that participants call sidebar meetings for any discussions that go too far outside these constraints. The Scrum literature recommends that this meeting take place first thing in the morning, as soon as all team members arrive.

Epic a very large user story that is eventually broken down into smaller stories; epics are often used as placeholders for new ideas that have not been thought out fully. There’s nothing wrong with having an epic, as long as it is not high priority.

Estimation the process of agreeing on a size measurement for the stories in a product backlog.

Fibonacci Sequence the sequence of numbers where the next number is derived by adding together the previous two (1,2,3,5,8,13,20…) ; the sequence has the quality of each interval getting larger as the numbers increase; the sequence is often used for Story Points, simply because estimates are always less accurate when dealing with epics.

 Impediment anything that prevents the team from meeting their potential (e.g. chairs are uncomfortable). If organizational, it is the Scrum Master’s responsibility to eliminate it. If it is internal to the team, then they themselves should do away with it.

Impediment Backlog a visible or nonvisible list of impediments in a priority order according to how seriously they are blocking the team from productivity.

Pig (arch.) term for a team member, the term offended some people so is now rarely used, cf. “Chicken”.

Planning Poker a game used to apply estimates to stories; it uses the Delphi method of arriving at consensus.

Process simply the way someone works. Everyone has a process. It can be pre-defined, empiric or merely chaotic.

Product Backlog a prioritized list of stories that are waiting to be worked on.

Product Backlog: The product backlog (or “backlog”) is the requirements for a system, expressed as a prioritized list of product backlog Items. These included both functional and non-functional customer requirements, as well as technical team-generated requirements. While there are multiple inputs to the product backlog, it is the sole responsibility of the product owner to prioritize the product backlog. During a Sprint planning meeting, backlog items are moved from the product backlog into a sprint, based on the product owner’s priorities.

 Product Backlog Item any item that is one the backlog list, which will include user stories, epics and possibly technical stories to deal with technical debt, etc.

Product Owner person whom holds the vision for the product and is responsible for maintaining, prioritizing and updating the product backlog. In Scrum, the Product Owner has final authority representing the customer’s interest in backlog prioritization and requirements questions. This person must be available to the team at any time, but especially during the sprint planning meeting and the sprint review meeting.

Challenges of being a product owner:

  1. Resisting the temptation to “manage” the team. The team may not self-organize in the way you would expect it to. This is especially challenging if some team members request your intervention with issues the team should sort out for itself.
  2. Resisting the temptation to add more important work after a Sprint is already in progress.
  3. Being willing to make hard choices during the sprint planning meeting.
  4. Balancing the interests of competing stakeholders.

 Release The transition of an increment of potentially shippable product from the development team into routine use by customers. Releases typically happen when one or more sprints has resulted in the product having enough value to outweigh the cost to deploy it.

Release Burndown Chart a visible chart to show progress towards a release.

Retrospective a session where the Team and Scrum Master reflect on the process and make commitments to improve.

ScrumMaster Role The ScrumMaster is a facilitator for the team and product owner. Rather than manage the team, the ScrumMaster works to assist both the team and product owner in the following ways:

  • Remove the barriers between the development and the product owner so that the product owner directly drives development.
  • Teach the product owner how to maximize return on investment (ROI), and meet his/her objectives through Scrum.
  • Improve the lives of the development team by facilitating creativity and empowerment.
  • Improve the productivity of the development team in any way possible.
  • Improve the engineering practices and tools so that each increment of functionality is potentially shippable.
  • Keep information about the team’s progress up to date and visible to all parties.

Scrum Meetings Story Time, Planning, Review, Retrospective, Daily Scrum

Scrum Roles there are only three: product owner, Scrum Master, team member

Self Organization the principle that those closest to the work best know how to do the work, so set clear goals and boundaries and let them make all tactical and implementation decisions, cf. Emergence, Empiricism

Sprint a time boxed iteration

Sprint Backlog Defines the work for a sprint, represented by the set of tasks that must be completed to realize the sprint’s goals, and selected set of product backlog items.

Sprint Burndown a visible chart that indicates on a daily basis the amount of work remaining in the sprint.

Sprint Goal aka Sprint Theme, the key focus of the work for a single sprint.

Sprint Planning a meeting between the Team and the Product Owner to plan the sprint and arrive at an agreement on the commitment.

Sprint Task a single small item of work that helps one particular story reach completion.

Story a backlog item usually using the template form: as a [user] I want [function] so that [business value], cf Product Backlog Item.

Stakeholder Sometimes the following terms are used synonymously – although it should be noted that there are nuances in their definitions: story, user story, technical user story, product backlog item, PBI, and product requirement.

Story Point a unit of measurement applied to the size of a story, cf. Fibonacci Sequence T-shirt sizes, powers of 2, are other ways of assigning Story Points.

Story Time the regular work session where items on the backlog are discussed, refined and estimated and the backlog is trimmed and prioritized.

 Task List the tasks needed to complete the set of stories committed to a sprint.

Taskboard a wall chart with cards and sticky notes that represent all the work of a team in a given sprint; the task notes are moved across the board to show progress.

Team A team (or “Scrum development team”) is optimally comprised of seven plus or minus two people and responsible for committing to work, delivering and driving the product forward from a tactical perspective.

For software development projects, the team members are usually a mix of software engineers, architects, programmers, analysts, QA experts, testers, UI designers, etc. This is often called “cross-functional project teams”. Agile practices also encourage cross-functional team members.

During a sprint, the team self-organizes to meet the sprint goals. The team has autonomy to choose how to best meet the goals, and is held responsible for them. The ScrumMaster acts as a guardian to ensure that the team is insulated from the product owner. Scrum also advocates putting the entire team in one team room.

Team Member a team member is defined as anyone working on sprint tasks toward the sprint goal. In Scrum parlance, the PO and SM could also be Team Members, if they are developing.

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Quality center (QC) Interview Questions and Answers

Software Testing

Quality center, “QC” Interview Questions

 1. Name the types of Test Automation?

A. Record and Playback (does not work in real world scenario)
Functional decomposition
Keyword driven
Model Based
Hybrid Test Automation Framework etc.

2. How do you rate your Quality Center knowledge on a scale of 1-10 (10 – Expert/Advanced User)?

A. I can rate myself 8 out of 10.

3. Which version(s) of Quality Center do you have experience with?

A. I have working experience with QC 9 to 11(alm)

4. Have you been responsible for setting it up / administering it?

A. Yes. Of course. I have played the role of QC Admin to set up new user accounts, modifying the configurations & troubleshooting the QC through admin.

5. Which Quality Center components are you most familiar with?

A. Test Plan, Requirements, Test lab, Defects. I also have the considerable experience working on business component modules and various features of QC

6. What are quality center workflows and what is their use ?

A. Quality Center provides a customization capability (called workflow) which allows the administrator to modify the default behavior. This workflow is driven by VBScript functions that are called whenever a particular event occurs on the client front-end.

There exists 1 VBScript workflow file per feature. Those are:

  • Login/Logout (common.tds)
  • Defects module (defects.tds)
  • Manual Test Execution (manrun.tds)
  • Test Requirements module (req.tds)
  • Test Lab module (testlab.tds)
  • Test Plan module (testplan.tds)

7. Can you script and implement workflows in QC — can you give an example of this ?

A. Though I do not have the experience in creating one but since I know the VB scripting and the workflow basics, I can put this knowledge together, explore and implement the workflows if my job demands. No. I never scripted workflows in QC.

8. What is ALM / Quality Center and why it is used?

A. ALM was formerly known as Quality center, a popular test management tool which is developed using J2EE with backend as MSSQL or ORACLE. It is a web-based tool and supports communication and association among various stakeholders. It also integrates with QTP , WinRunner & LoadRunner. We can also create reports and graphs for Analysis and Tracking for Test processes.

9. What are the modules of ALM?

A. The Quality Center modules are − Management Module, Requirement Module, Test Plan, Test Resources, Test lab, Defect Module, Dashboard

10. What are the benefits of Requirement Traceability?

A. The benefits of Requirement traceability track from links indicates requirements that affect a selected requirement. Trace to links indicates requirements that are affected by a selected requirement.

11. Can We Convert or Generate Test from the requirements?

A. Yes there are two ways to generate test from requirements. Convert Requirement to test and Generate a test from requirements.

12. What is version control and what are its advantages?

A. Version control is change management tool which helps us to keep track of changes made to entities in our project including requirements.

13. Is it possible to import test cases from Excel / Word to ALM?

A. Yes. Using the MS Excel/Word Plugin.

14. Is it possible to export ALM test cases to Excel?

A. Yes. Select the tests that needs to be exported and perform Right Click and select “Save selected” or “Save All” and enter the file name to be exported to excel.

15. What are the supported databases of HP ALM?

A. HP ALM supports MS-SQL and ORACLE

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Top 20 Questions of Load Runner

Software Testing: Top 20 Questions of Load Runner

1. What is load testing?

Load testing is the method to test if the application works fine under certain defined load. Load can be the number of vusers which will performance a certain amount of transaction in a defined unit of time.

2. What is Performance testing?

Performance Testing is the process of determining the performance (speed, effectiveness, reliability, scalability) of the system which involves tests to be executed in a dedicated testing environment having production like infrastructure in place to get the results which can pin-point the issue/bottleneck (if any).

3. What are the components of LoadRunner?

The components of LoadRunner are The Virtual User Generator, Controller, and the Agent process, LoadRunner Analysis and Monitoring, LoadRunner Books Online.

4. What Component of LoadRunner would you use to record a Script?

The Virtual User Generator (VuGen) component is used to record a script. It enables you to develop Vuser scripts for a variety of application types and communication protocols.

5. What is a rendezvous point?

You insert rendezvous points into Vuser scripts to emulate heavy user load on the server. Rendezvous points instruct Vusers to wait during test execution for multiple Vusers to arrive at a certain point, in order that they may simultaneously perform a task. For example, to emulate peak load on the bank server, you can insert a rendezvous point instructing 100 Vusers to deposit cash into their accounts at the same time.

6. What is a scenario?

A scenario defines the events that occur during each testing session. For example, a scenario defines and controls the number of users to emulate, the actions to be performed, and the machines on which the virtual users run their emulations. 

7. What is correlation? Explain the difference between automatic correlation and manual correlation?

Correlation is used to obtain data which are unique for each run of the script and which are generated by nested queries. Correlation provides the value to avoid errors arising out of duplicate values and also optimizing the code(to avoid nested queries). Automatic correlation is where we set some rules for correlation. It can be application server specific. Here values are replaced by data which are created by these rules. In manual correlation, the value we want to correlate is scanned and create correlation is used to correlate.

8. When do you disable log in Virtual User Generator, When do you choose standard and extended logs?

Once we debug our script and verify that it is functional, we can enable logging for errors only. When we add a script to a scenario, logging is automatically disabled.

Standard Log Option: When you select Standard log, it creates a standard log of functions and messages sent during script execution to use for debugging. Disable this option for large load testing scenarios. When you copy a script to a scenario, logging is automatically disabled

Extended Log Option: Select extended log to create an extended log, including warnings and other messages. Disable this option for large load testing scenarios. When you copy a script to a scenario, logging is automatically disabled. We can specify which additional information should be added to the extended log using the extended log options.

9. What are the changes you can make in run-time settings?

The Run Time Settings that we make are:

  1. a) Pacing – It has iteration count.
  2. b) Log – Under this we have Disable Logging Standard Log and Extended.
  3. c) Think Time – In think time we have two options like Ignore think time and Replay think time.
  4. d) General – Under general tab we can set the vusers as process or as multithreading and whether each step as a transaction.

10. What is Ramp up? How do you set this?

This option is used to gradually increase the amount of Vusers/load on the server. An initial value is set and a value to wait between intervals can be specified. To set Ramp Up, go to ‘Scenario Scheduling Options’

11. What is the relation between Response Time and Throughput?

The Throughput graph shows the amount of data in bytes that the Vusers received from the server in a second. When we compare this with the transaction response time, we will notice that as throughput decreased, the response time also decreased. Similarly, the peak throughput and highest response time would occur approximately at the same time.

12. What does vuser_init action contain?

Vuser_init action contains procedures to login to a server.

13. What does vuser_end action contain?

Vuser_end section contains log off procedures.

14. What are the benefits of multiple Action files within a Vuser?

They allow you to perform different business processes in one Vuser to repsent A real user who does the same thing. They let you build Vusers that emulate real Users defined in the User Community Profile. They also allow you to record the Login and logoff separately from the Action files and thus to avoid iteration.

15. How can you determine which field is data dependent?

Rerecord the same script using different input values, then compare the two Scripts.

16. What is difference between manual scenario and Goal oriented scenario? What Goal Oriented scenarios can be created?

Manual scenario:

–Main purpose is to learn how many Vusers can run concurrently

– Gives you manual control over how many Vusers run and at what times

Goal oriented scenario:

– Goal may be throughput, response time, or number of concurrent Vusers

– LoadRunner manages Vusers automatically

17. Different Goal Oriented Scenarios are:

  • Virtual Users
  • Hits per second
  • Transaction per second
  • Transaction Response time
  • Pages per minute

18. Why wouldn’t you want to run virtual users on the same host as the Load-Runner Controller or Database Server?

Running virtual users on the same host as the LoadRunner Controller will skewthe results so that they no longer emulate real life usage. By having both the Controller and the Vusers on the same machine, the tester will not be able to determine the effects of the network traffic.

19. Each time you run the same scenario, the results will be slightly different. Whatare some of the factors that can cause differences in performance measurements?

Different factors can effect the performance measurements including networktraffic, CPU usage and caching.

20. What are some of the reasons to use the Server Resources Monitor?

  • To find out how much data is coming from the cache
  • To help find out what parts of the system might contain bottlenecks

21. Explain the following:

  • Hits per second graph

The Hits per Second graph shows the number of HTTP requests made by Vusers to the Web server during each second of the scenario run. This graph helps you evaluate the amount of load Vusers generate, in terms of the number of hits.

  • Pages download per second graph

The Pages Downloaded per Second graph shows the number of Web pages (y-axis) downloaded from the server during each second of the scenario run (x-axis). This graph helps you evaluate the amount of load Vusers generate, in terms of the number of pages downloaded.

  • Transaction Response time (under load) graph

The Transaction Response Time (Under Load) graph is a combination of the Running Vusers and Average Transaction Response Time graphs and indicates transaction times relative to the number of Vusers running at any given point during the scenario. This graph helps you view the general impact of Vuser load on performance time and is most useful when analyzing a scenario with a gradual load.

  • Transaction Response time (percentile) graph

The Transaction Response Time (Percentile) graph analyzes the percentage of transactions that were performed within a given time range. This graph helps you determine the percentage of transactions that met the performance criteria defined for your system.

  • Network delay time graph

The Network Delay Time graph shows the delays for the complete path between the source and destination machines (for example, the database server and Vuser load generator).

Agile Testing Interview Questions and Answers

Agile Testing Interview Questions and Answers

 1. What is the advantage of doing Scrum?

A. The advantage of doing scrum is that while performing the test

  • It minimizes the risk in response to changes made to the system
  • It increases ROI ( Return of Investment)
  • It improves the process continuously
  • It repeatedly and rapidly looks into actual working software
  • Anyone can see real working software and continue to enhance for another iteration

2. Explain what is Scrum Sprint?

A. Scrum project is developed in a series of “sprint”. It is a repeatable and regular work cycle in scrum methodology during which work is accomplished and kept ready for review.

3. Explain what is a product backlog in Scrum?

A. Before the scrum sprint initiates, product owner review the list of all new features, change requests, enhancements and bug reports and determines which ones are of high priorities. If the project is new it includes new features that the new system must provide, this list of item is referred as Product Backlog.  The items that are kept on sprint are referred as Sprint Backlog.

4. What is an epic, user stories and task?

A.  1. Epic: A customer described software feature that is itemized in the product backlog is known as epic. Epics are          sub-divided into stories

       2. User Stories: From the client perspective user stories are prepared which defines project or business                            functions, and it is delivered in a particular sprint as expected.

3. Task: Further down user stories are broken down into different task

5. Mention the key difference between sprint backlog and product backlog?

  • Product backlog: It contains a list of all desired features and is owned by the product owner
  • Sprint backlog: It is a subset of the product backlog owned by development team and commits to deliver it in a sprint. It is created in Sprint Planning Meeting

6. Explain in Agile, burn-up and burn-down chart?

  • To track the project progress burnup and burn down, charts are used
  • Burnup Chart: It shows the progress of stories done over time
  • Burndown Chart: It shows how much work was left to do overtime

7. What is story points/efforts/ scales?

A. It is used to discuss the difficulty of the story without assigning actual hours. The most common scale used is a Fibonacci sequence ( 1,2,3,5,8,13,….100) although some teams use linear scale (1,2,3,4….), Powers of 2 (1,2,4,8……) and cloth size (XS, S ,M,L, XL)

8. What is a test stub?

A. A test stub is a small code that replaces an undeveloped or fully developed component within a system being tested. Test stub is designed in such a way that it mimics the actual component by generating specifically known outputs and substitute the actual component.

9. Explain what is user stories in Scrum?

A. In scrum, user stories are short, one sentence definitions of a feature or functionality.

10. What testing is done during Agile?

A. The primary testing activities during Agile is automated unit testing and exploratory testing. Though, depending on project requirements, a tester may execute Functional and Non-functional tests on the Application Under Test (AUT).

11. What are the qualities of a good Agile tester should have?

A. A good Agile tester should have following qualities

  • It should be able to understand the requirements quickly
  • Agile tester should know Agile principals and concepts well
  • As requirements keep changing, tester should understand the risk involve in it
  • Based on the requirements Agile tester should be able to prioritize the work
  • Continue communication between business associates, developers and tester is must

12. Explain the difference between traditional Waterfall model and Agile testing?

A. Agile testing is done parallel to the development activity whereas in traditional waterfall model testing is done at the end of the development.

As done in parallel, agile testing is done on small features whereas in waterfall model testing is done on whole application.

13. What is importance of daily stand up meeting?

A. Daily stand up meeting is essential for any team in which-

  1. Team discuss about how much work has been completed.
  2. What are the plans to resolve technical issues.
  3. What steps need to done to complete the projects etc.

14. What is Zero sprint in Agile?

A. It can be defined as pre step to the first sprint. Activities like setting development environment, preparing backlog etc needs to be done before starting of the first sprint and can be treated as Sprint zero.

15. Explain Pair Programming and its benefits?

A. Pair programming is a technique in which two programmer works as team in which one programmer writes code and other one reviews that code. They both can switch their roles.


  1. Improved code quality: As second partner reviews the code simultaneously, it reduces the chances of mistake.
  2. Knowledge transfer is easy: One experience partner can teach other partner about the techniques and codes.

Selenium Interview Questions and Answers

Software Testing Interview Questions

Selenium Interview Questions and Answers

Frequently asked Interview Questions with Answer in Selenium

1. What are the annotations used in TestNG ?

A. @Test, @BeforeSuite, @AfterSuite, @BeforeTest, @AfterTest, @BeforeClass, @AfterClass, @BeforeMethod, @AfterMethod.

2. What are the limitations of Selenium?

A. Following are the limitations of Selenium:

  • Selenium supports testing of only web based applications
  • Mobile applications cannot be tested using Selenium
  • Captcha and Bar code readers cannot be tested using Selenium
  • Reports can only be generated using third party tools like TestNG or Junit.
  • As Selenium is a free tool, thus there is no ready vendor support though the user can find numerous helping communities.
  • User is expected to possess prior programming language knowledge.

3. What is Selenium? What are the different Selenium components?

A. Selenium is one of the most popular automated testing suites. Selenium is designed in a way to support and encourage automation testing of functional aspects of web based applications and a wide range of browsers and platforms. Due to its existence in the open source community, it has become one of the most accepted tools amongst the testing professionals.

Selenium is not just a single tool or a utility, rather a package of several testing tools and for the same reason it is referred to as a Suite. Each of these tools is designed to cater different testing and test environment requirements.

The suite package constitutes of the following sets of tools:

  • Selenium Integrated Development Environment SIDE– Selenium IDE is a record and playback tool. It is distributed as a Firefox Plugin.
  • Selenium Remote Control (RC) – Selenium RC is a server that allows user to create test scripts in a desired programming language. It also allows executing test scripts within the large spectrum of browsers.
  • Selenium WebDriver – WebDriver is a different tool altogether that has various advantages over Selenium RC. WebDriver directly communicates with the web browser and uses its native compatibility to automate.
  • Selenium Grid –  Selenium Grid is used to distribute your test execution on multiple platforms and environments concurrently

4. What is Selenese?

A. Selenese is the language which is used to write test scripts in Selenium IDE.

5. What is the use of xpath ?

A. It is used to find the WebElement in web page. It is very useful to identify the dynamic web elements.

6. What is the difference between Assert and Verify?

A. Assert- it is used to verify the result. If the test case fail then it will stop the execution of the test case there itself and move the control to other test case.

Verify- it is also used to verify the result. If the test case fail then it will not stop the execution of that test case.

7. How do you handle alert pop-up ?

A. To handle alert pop-ups, we need to 1st switch control to alert pop-ups then click on ok or cancle then move control back to main page.

String mainPage = driver.getWindowHandle();

Alert alt = driver.switchTo().alert(); // to move control to alert popup

 alt.accept(); // to click on ok.

 alt.dismiss(); // to click on cancel.

 //Then move the control back to main web page-

 driver.switchTo().window(mainPage); → to switch back to main page.

8. What is the difference between “/” and “//” in Xpath?

A. Single Slash “/” – Single slash is used to create Xpath with absolute path i.e. the xpath would be created to start selection from the document node/start node.

Double Slash “//” – Double slash is used to create Xpath with relative path i.e. the xpath would be created to start selection from anywhere within the document.

9. What do we mean by Selenium 1 and Selenium 2?

A. Selenium RC and WebDriver, in a combination are popularly known as Selenium 2. Selenium RC alone is also referred as Selenium 1.

10. How do I launch the browser using WebDriver?

A. The following syntax can be used to launch Browser:
WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();
WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
WebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver();

11. What are the different types of waits available in WebDriver?

A. There are two types of waits available in WebDriver:

  1. Implicit Wait
  2. Explicit Wait

Implicit Wait: Implicit waits are used to provide a default waiting time (say 30 seconds) between each consecutive test step/command across the entire test script. Thus, subsequent test step would only execute when the 30 seconds have elapsed after executing the previous test step/command.

Explicit Wait: Explicit waits are used to halt the execution till the time a particular condition is met or the maximum time has elapsed. Unlike Implicit waits, explicit waits are applied for a particular instance only.

12. What are the different types of navigation commands?

A. Following are the navigation commands:
navigate().back() – The above command requires no parameters and takes back the user to the previous webpage in the web browser’s history.

navigate().forward() – This command lets the user to navigate to the next web page with reference to the browser’s history.

navigate().refresh() – This command lets the user to refresh the current web page there by reloading all the web elements.

13. When do we use findElement() and findElements()?

A. findElement(): findElement() is used to find the first element in the current web page matching to the specified locator value. Take a note that only first matching element would be fetched.


WebElement element = driver.findElements(By.xpath(“//div[@id=’example’]//ul//li”));
findElements(): findElements() is used to find all the elements in the current web page matching to the specified locator value. Take a note that all the matching elements would be fetched and stored in the list of WebElements.

List <WebElement> elementList = driver.findElements(By.xpath(“//div[@id=’example’]//ul//li”));

14. How do I submit a form using Selenium?
A. driver.findElement(By.id(“ElementID”)). submit();

15. What is the difference between driver.close() and driver.quit() command?

A. close(): WebDriver’s close() method closes the web browser window that the user is currently working on or we can also say the window that is being currently accessed by the WebDriver. The command neither requires any parameter nor does is return any value.

quit(): Unlike close() method, quit() method closes down all the windows that the program has opened. Same as close() method, the command neither requires any parameter nor does is return any value.

16. What is a framework?

A. Framework is a constructive blend of various guidelines, coding standards, concepts, processes, practices, project hierarchies, modularity, reporting mechanism, test data injections etc. to pillar automation testing.

17. What are the different types of frameworks?

A. Below are the different types of frameworks:

  1. Module Based Testing Framework: The framework divides the entire “Application Under Test” into number of logical and isolated modules. For each module, we create a separate and independent test script. Thus, when these test scripts taken together builds a larger test script representing more than one module.
  2. Library Architecture Testing Framework: The basic fundamental behind the framework is to determine the common steps and group them into functions under a library and call those functions in the test scripts whenever required.
  3. Data Driven Testing Framework: Data Driven Testing Framework helps the user segregate the test script logic and the test data from each other. It lets the user store the test data into an external database. The data is conventionally stored in “Key-Value” pairs. Thus, the key can be used to access and populate the data within the test scripts.
  4. Keyword Driven Testing Framework: The Keyword driven testing framework is an extension to Data driven Testing Framework in a sense that it not only segregates the test data from the scripts, it also keeps the certain set of code belonging to the test script into an external data file.
  5. Hybrid Testing Framework: Hybrid Testing Framework is a combination of more than one above mentioned frameworks. The best thing about such a setup is that it leverages the benefits of all kinds of associated frameworks.
  6. Behavior Driven Development Framework: Behavior Driven Development framework allows automation of functional validations in easily readable and understandable format to Business Analysts, Developers, Testers, etc

18. Give the example for method overload in WebDriver.

A. frame(string), frame(int), frame(WebElement).

19. How do you upload a file?

A. To upload a file we can use sendKeys() method.

driver.findElement(By.xpath(“input field”)).sendKeys(“path of the file”);

20. How do you click on a menu item in a drop down menu?

A. If that menu has been created by using select tag then we can use the methods selectByValue() or selectByIndex() or selectByVisibleText(). These are the methods of the Select class.

If the menu has not been created by using the select tag then we can simply find the xpath of that element and click on that to select.

21. What are the different exceptions you got when working with WebDriver ?

A. ElementNotVisibleException, ElementNotSelectableException, NoAlertPresentException, NoSuchAttributeException, NoSuchWindowException, TimeoutException, WebDriverException etc.

22. What are the languages supported by WebDriver ?

A. Python, Ruby, C# and Java are all supported directly by the development team. There are also webdriver implementations for PHP and Perl.

23. What are the prerequisites to run selenium webdriver?

A. JDK, Eclipse, WebDriver(selenium standalone jar file), browser, application to be tested.

24. What is Selenium Grid ?

A. Selenium-Grid allows you to run your tests on different machines against different browsers in parallel. That is, running multiple tests at the same time against different machines, different browsers and operating systems. Essentially, Selenium-Grid support distributed test execution. It allows for running your tests in a distributed test execution environment.

25. How to check if a button is enabled on the page ?

A. Use isEnabled() method. The return type of the method is boolean. So if it return true then button is enabled else not enabled.

 driver.findElement(By.xpath(“xpath of button”)).isEnabled();

26. How to check the checkbox or radio button is selected ?

A. Use isSelected() method to identify. The return type of the method is boolean. So if it return true then button is selected else not enabled.

driver.findElement(By.xpath(“xpath of button”)).isSelected();

27. How can we get a text of a web element?

A. Get command is used to retrieve the inner text of the specified web element. The command doesn’t require any parameter but returns a string value. It is also one of the extensively used commands for verification of messages, labels, errors etc displayed on the web pages.

String Text = driver.findElement(By.id(“Text”)).getText();

28. How do u get the attribute of the web element ?

A. driver.getElement(By.tagName(“img”)).getAttribute(“src”) will give you the src attribute of this tag.

29. How to hover the mouse on an element ?

A. act.moveToElement(webelement); //webelement on which you want to move cursor

Agile Testing Interview Questions and Answers

Software Testing Interview Questions

Software Testing Interview Questions

  1. Can you explain the PDCA cycle and where testing fits in?
  2. What is the main benefit of designing tests early in the life cycle?
  3. What is the difference between white box, black box, and gray box testing?
  4. Can you explain usability testing?
  5. When is used Decision table testing?
  6. What are the categories of defects in requirement?
  7. We use the output of the requirement analysis, the requirement specification as the input for writing …?
  8. What is component testing?
  9. What are the different Methodologies in Agile Development Model?
  10. What is an equivalence partition (also known as an equivalence class)?
  11. A Type of functional Testing, which investigates the functions relating to detection of threats, such as virus from malicious outsiders?
  12. When “Regression Testing” should be performed?
  13. What is negative and positive testing?
  14. What is the purpose of a test completion criterion?
  15. What is the difference between re-testing and regression testing?
  16. What are the Experience-based testing techniques?
  17. What type of review requires formal entry and exit criteria, including metrics?
  18. Are there more defects in the design phase or in the coding phase?
  19. Should testing be done only after the build and execution phases are complete?
  20. What impact ratings have you used in your projects?
  21. When should testing be stopped?
  22. Mention the difference between Data Driven Testing and Retesting?
  23. What is the difference between UAT (User Acceptance Testing) and System testing?
  24. What is Integration testing?
  25. What is verification and validation?
  26. What is white box testing and list the types of white box testing?
  27. When is RTM (Requirement Traceability Matrix) prepared ?
  28. What is difference between Test matrix and Traceability matrix?
  29. What is “use case testing”?
  30. What is the difference between STLC (Software Testing Life Cycle) and SDLC (Software Development Life  Cycle) ?
  31. What is a test log?
  32. What’s the difference between alpha and beta testing?
  33. What is coverage and what are the different types of coverage techniques?
  34. Explain Branch Coverage and Decision Coverage.
  35. What is Mutation testing & when can it be done?
  36. What is severity and priority of bug? Give some example.
  37. What is Monkey testing?
  38. What is test driver and test stub?
  39. What is the purpose of test strategy?
  40. Explain bug life cycle?

To learn more Selenium Interview Questions and Answers and Agile Testing Interview Questions and Answers

SDLC – Prototype Model and its Testing

SDLC – Prototype Model and its Testing

Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) process is a type of structure or framework used in the development of any software product. There are many different lifecycle models defined. Waterfall model, spiral model, prototype model are a few such models. Selection of the model depends upon the requirement.

When to use Prototype Model:

Prototype model should be used when the desired system needs to have a lot of interaction with the end users. For example online systems, web interfaces have a very high amount of interaction with end users, are best suited for Prototype model.

Prototype Model:

In Prototype model  requirements are collected from the client in a textual format. The functional requirements of each prototype are analyzed and the prototype of the software product is developed. The prototype is just an image of required software product. Prototypes are tested and sent to the client for feedback. After feedback is received from the client, the required changes are implemented through the development phase. When the second prototype is ready, it is integrated with the first prototype, tested and then sent to the client. The development, prototyping and testing prototype are repeated until the final prototype is ready. The final prototype is sent to the client for a final feedback.

Prototype is earlier done by the developer. But, now it is done by web designer. They develop prototype of the product using simple readymade tools like CanvasFlip, Fluid UI.

Prototype Testing:

 Prototype testing means developers/testers are checking prototype to verify if all components mentioned exist or not. The difference between prototype testing and actual testing is in prototype testing we are checking if all the components existing whereas in actual testing we check if all components are working.

Advantages of Prototype model: 

  • Early determination of user requirement can result in faster and less expensive software
  • Customer gets the opportunity in the beginning itself to ask for changes in requirement. It is easy to do requirement changes in prototype than real application.

Disadvantages of Prototype model: 

  • There is delay in start of real project.
  • To improve communication there is an investment needed in building the prototype.

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